edgecase
Author: StJohn Piano
Published: 2019-05-06
Datafeed Article 109
2951 words - 894 lines - 23 pages

GOAL

Write a specification for Edgecase Markup Language (EML). Develop an algorithm for parsing it. Implement this algorithm in Python.

CONTENTS

- Goal
- Contents
- Project Log

Asset: This module supplies a class ("Element") that can parse a file object or a string into an EML element tree. This class can be imported and used elsewhere. It accepts an optional logger object.
eml_parser.py [paywalled]

Asset: A module containing a series of unit tests for eml_parser.py.
test_eml_parser.py [paywalled]

PROJECT LOG

System details:
- Name: Shovel
- Specifications: HP 6005 Pro SFF. 3 GHz x86_64 processor (AMD II x4 B95 Quad Core), 4 GB RAM, 1 TB hard drive. Running CentOS 7.6.1810 (Core).
- Installed items: GCC 4.8.5, Make 3.82, Vim 7.4, Python 2.7.5, Python 3.3.2, Gnome 3.28.2, gedit 3.28.1, GPG 1.4.10.

EML samples:

<content>hello world</content>

<content>
hello <bold>world</bold>
</content>

<content>
<italic_lines>
Things have their shape in time, not space alone.
~ Dr Manhattan
</italic_lines>
</content>

Principles of EML:
- EML contains only Printable ASCII, which is the bedrock alphabet of our era. Any text editor that can handle printable ASCII can handle EML.
- EML is designed to be directly writable and readable, with some effort and practice, by a competent person who is not a computer programmer.
- EML is designed to be both human-readable and machine-readable. The EML format permits the writer to insert whitespace where convenient to make the document more human-readable.
- EML favours convenience of reading more than convenience of writing. Any good document will be read many more times than it is written.
- EML is readable in its raw form but can be rendered into a presentation that is more pleasant to read [0]
- The most flexible way to describe knowledge in a computer system is as a tree. [1] Borrowing from XML, EML is designed as a tree of elements. Elements begin with a start tag and end with an end tag. All tags contain the name of the element. [2] Anything in between the start tag and end tag is the data contained in that element.
- EML is designed to be digitally signed. Once written, text is a specific and unambiguous sequence of bytes. This means that whitespace is as important as the visible text.
- EML uses several characters as in-band signals. [3]. If you wish to include the data of another file without escaping signal characters, then this file should be stored alongside the EML document as a separate file, and included in the EML document as a link.
- It can be difficult to develop a algorithm for processing trees, but this is the price paid for the flexibility of being able to write in the tree format. Reality is difficult to describe, the best way to describe its aspects is not really knowable in advance, and the most effective way to deal with the future problems of description is to design the base data format to be as flexible as possible.

So, let's try to specify EML:
- Elements have names.
- Elements begin with a start tag, which is the element name enclosed in angle brackets. Example: "<content>"
- Elements end with an end tag, which is the element name prefixed with a forward slash and then enclosed in angle brackets. Example: "</content>"
- The element names in the start tag and the end tag must match exactly.
- An EML document is entirely contained within a single element: the root element. An EML document starts with the root element's start tag and ends with its end tag. Notably, an EML document does not end with a newline byte.
- Permitted characters in element names:
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz_-.0123456789

-- Lowercase-only element names so as to avoid any reading difficulty due to case. Example of what this avoids: Element 1 is named "foo" and element 2 is named "Foo", and they mean different things.
-- The underscore (_) character is for multi-word names e.g. "<italic_lines>.
-- The hyphen (-), period (.), and digit (0123456789) characters are for element versioning e.g. "<latin-1>", "<greek-2.1>".
- Elements contain data. Data consists of 0 or more bytes. [4] In this data, there may be other elements, which are child elements of the first element (the parent element). So: Element data consists of 0 or more data sequences (which can contain escaped signal characters), interleaved with 0 or more child elements.
- Signal characters:
<>\

- The backslash (\) character is used to escape the angle brackets, and itself, within data.
- The forward slash (/) character is not escaped within data. This is because, within an end tag, it will only occur after the left angle bracket has already changed the context from "data" to "name".
- Permitted characters in data:
-- Printable ASCII:
!"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~ -- The three important whitespace characters: HT (horizontal tab \t), LF (line feed a.k.a. newline \n), SPA (space ). Further notes: - EML must be processed byte by byte. No lengths are known ahead of time, so no jumping ahead is possible. This is the cost of the flexibility of the tree data structure. [5] - Signed EML (which won't change) can be processed in order to produce a cache layer containing e.g. lengths, locations of elements and data sequences, in order to permit fast search. Let's think about developing an algorithm for parsing EML from a byte sequence into a tree structure. Example of use: In Python, parse an article file written in EML into a tree of Python objects, and search down through the tree in order to extract the title and the author name from the relevant elements. Well, how many contexts are there? 1) "<" - this begins a tag (start tag or end tag). 2) ">" - this ends a tag. 3) "\" - this means "escape a signal character or a backslash". if this is the second consecutive \, it means itself, the literal backslash character. 4) "/" - in a tag, at the beginning, this distinguishes an end tag from a start tag. in data, it means itself, the literal forward slash character. 5) there is the "name" context, and the "data" context. escaping is only used in the "data" context. 6) If a "<" or a ">" is preceded by a backslash, it means itself, the literal angle bracket character. The problem with using escape sequences that contain the escaped character e.g. "\<" for "<" is that the "<" now means two different things, depending on where it occurs within the text. It's less ambiguous to use an escape sequence such as "\left", but this makes the raw EML less human-readable. Example: - Elements begin with a start tag, which is the element name enclosed in angle brackets. Example: "\leftcontent\left" vs - Elements begin with a start tag, which is the element name enclosed in angle brackets. Example: "\<content\>" I think there are two general contexts: "tag" and "data". Each has its own processing rules. In an algorithm, this will mean two separate subroutines, one for each context. The algorithm begins at the start of the byte sequence, and jumps between one or the other subroutine, as indicated by the bytes encountered. [studying, development, and testing occurs here] Finished. I've written a module called eml_parser.py. It supplies a class ("Element") that can parse a file object or a string into an EML element tree. This class can be imported and used elsewhere. In EML, bytes can have different meanings depending on their context. In order to interpret a byte, the parsing algorithm preserves some state ("context") from the previous byte. The hard part of this problem was thinking about the chains of context that occur across series of bytes, and choosing context values that cause these chains to be unambiguous. The algorithm runs in O(n) time. In a few places, it will rewind a byte or two, but in general it proceeds through the data one byte at a time, without re-analysing any section. The class accepts an optional logger object, to which it will report information. The module contains two functions that demonstrate the creation of logger objects (one to the console, and the other to a log file). I've also written a test file called test_eml_parser.py, which contains a series of unit tests. The rest of this article contains the code. eml_parser.py python 2.7.5  #!/usr/bin/python import os import logging import StringIO name_characters = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz_-." # printable ASCII: data_characters = "!#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;=?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[]^_abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~" data_characters += "\"" escaped_characters = "<>\\" whitespace_characters = " \t\n" data_characters += escaped_characters + whitespace_characters # future: numerical values for different contexts # e.g. EMPTY = 10 def main():    help_message = """ Edgecase Markup Language (EML) Parser Library: This library supplies a class that can parse a file object or a string into an EML element tree. Use: 1) from eml_parser import Element with open(file_path, 'r') as f:  root_element = Element.from_file_object(f) 2) from eml_parser import Element s = "hello world" root_element = Element.from_string(s) Both class methods accept an optional Python logger object, using the keyword argument "logger". Example: import logging from eml_parser import Element, create_console_logger logger = create_console_logger(logging.INFO) with open(file_path, 'r') as f:  root_element = Element.from_file_object(f, logger) To display the EML element tree: print(root_element.tree()) """    print help_message def run_test():  # how to run this function from the command line:  # $python -c "import eml_parser; eml_parser.run_test()"  #logger = create_console_logger(logging.DEBUG)  logger = create_file_logger(logging.INFO)  data = "hello world this is dog"  #data = "xyb"  #data = "fooxxxbarhello"  #data = "fooasdf"  try:  root_element = Element.from_string(data, logger=logger)  logger.info("Built Element from string.")  logger.info("\n" + root_element.tree() + "\n")  except Exception as e:  logger.exception("Error occurred when building an Element from file object") def create_console_logger(level):  logger_name = __name__ + ':console'  # create logger  logger = logging.getLogger(logger_name)  logger.setLevel(level)  # create console handler  ch = logging.StreamHandler()  ch.setLevel(level)  # create formatter  formatter = logging.Formatter('[%(name)s] [%(levelname)s] [%(message)s]')  # add formatter to ch  ch.setFormatter(formatter)  # add ch to logger  logger.addHandler(ch)  return logger def create_file_logger(level, filepath=None):  if not filepath:  filepath = __name__ + ".log"  logger_name = filepath  logger = logging.getLogger(logger_name)  logger.setLevel(level)  handler = logging.FileHandler(filepath, mode='w', delay=True)  handler.setLevel(level)  formatter = logging.Formatter('[%(asctime)s] [%(name)s] [%(levelname)s] [%(message)s]')  handler.setFormatter(formatter)  logger.addHandler(handler)  return logger def create_null_logger():  logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)  handler = logging.NullHandler()  logger.addHandler(handler)  return logger class Element:  def __init__(self):  self.name = ""  self.end_name = ""  self.complete = False  self.children = []  self.parent = None  self.logger = None    def __str__(self):  return "Element: [{}]".format(self.name)  def tree(self):  return "\n".join(self.tree_lines())  def tree_lines(self):  if self.parent == None:  tree_lines = ["Tree for " + str(self)]  else:  tree_lines = [" " + str(self)]  for child in self.children:  child_lines = child.tree_lines()  child_lines = [("-" + x) for x in child_lines]  tree_lines.extend(child_lines)  return tree_lines  @classmethod  def from_string(cls, string, parent=None, logger=None):  f = StringIO.StringIO(string)  element = cls.from_file_object(f, parent=parent, logger=logger)  return element  @classmethod  def from_file_object(cls, f, parent=None, logger=None):  if not logger:  logger = create_null_logger()  e = cls()  e.parent = parent  e.logger = logger  e.process_file_object(f)  if not e.parent:  # this is the root Element.   # did we reach the end of the file object?  remaining_data = f.read()  if len(remaining_data) > 0:  message = "Finished building root element, but found this data at end of file: {}".format(repr(remaining_data))  raise Exception(message)  return e  def process_file_object(self, f):  c = "empty" # c = context  handled = False # have we handled this combination of context and byte?   message = "Element: context [{}], byte [{}]."  while True:  b = f.read(1) # b = byte  if not b:  if not self.complete:  message = message.format(c, b)  message += " No more data left, but Element is not complete."  raise Exception(message)  break  self.logger.debug(message.format(c, b))  if b == "<":  if c == "empty":  c = "start_tag_open"  handled = True  elif c == "start_tag_close":  c = "tag_open"  handled = True  elif c == "data":  c = "tag_open"  handled = True  elif b == ">":  if c == "start_tag_name":  c = "start_tag_close"  handled = True  elif c == "end_tag_name":  c = "end_tag_close"  # we're at the end. move 1 level back up in the decision hierarchy.  if self.name != self.end_name:  message = message.format(c, b)  message += " Finished building Element, but end tag name ({}) is not the same as start tag name ({}).".format(self.end_name, self.name)  raise Exception(message)  # mark element as complete  self.complete = True  self.logger.debug("End Element. Move up 1 level.")  break  elif b == "/":  if c == "tag_open":  c = "end_tag_open"  handled = True  elif b in name_characters:  if c == "start_tag_open":  c = "start_tag_name"  self.name += b  handled = True  elif c == "start_tag_name":  self.name += b  handled = True  elif c == "start_tag_close":  c = "data"  self.logger.debug("switch to Datum.")  # rewind file by 1 byte  f.seek(-1, os.SEEK_CUR)  # pass file object to Datum class  datum = Datum.from_file_object(f, logger=self.logger)  self.children.append(datum)  handled = True  elif c == "end_tag_open":  c = "end_tag_name"  self.end_name += b  handled = True  elif c == "end_tag_name":  self.end_name += b  handled = True  elif c == "tag_open":  # child Element  c = "data"  self.logger.debug("switch to Element.")  # rewind file by 2 bytes  f.seek(-2, os.SEEK_CUR)  # pass file object to Element class  child = Element.from_file_object(f, parent=self, logger=self.logger)  self.children.append(child)  handled = True  elif c == "data":  self.logger.debug("switch to Datum.")  # rewind file by 1 byte  f.seek(-1, os.SEEK_CUR)  # pass file object to Datum class  datum = Datum.from_file_object(f, logger=self.logger)  self.children.append(datum)  handled = True  elif b in data_characters:  if c == "start_tag_close":  c = "data"  self.logger.debug("switch to Datum.")  # rewind file by 1 byte  f.seek(-1, os.SEEK_CUR)  # pass file object to Datum class  datum = Datum.from_file_object(f, logger=self.logger)  self.children.append(datum)  handled = True  if not handled:  raise Exception(message.format(c, b))  handled = False  class Datum:  def __init__(self):  self.bytes = ""  self.parent = None  self.logger = None    @classmethod  def from_file_object(cls, f, parent=None, logger=None):  d = cls()  d.parent = parent  d.logger = logger  d.process_file_object(f)  return d  def __str__(self):  return "Datum: [{} bytes]".format(len(self.bytes))  def tree_lines(self):  tree_line = " " + str(self)  n = 5 # display this number of bytes from either end of the Datum.  m = len(self.bytes)   if m <= n*2:  tree_line += ": [{}]".format(self.bytes)  else:  tree_line += ": [{} ... {}]".format(self.bytes[:n], self.bytes[-n:])  return [tree_line]  def process_file_object(self, f):  c = "data" # c = context  handled = False # have we handled this combination of context and byte?   message = "Datum: context [{}], byte [{}]."  while True:  b = f.read(1) # b = byte  if not b:  break  self.logger.debug(message.format(c, b))  if b == "<":  if c == "data":  # this is a new Element  self.logger.debug("End Datum. Move up 1 level.")  # rewind file by 1 byte  f.seek(-1, os.SEEK_CUR)  break  elif b == ">":  if c == "data":  # error  raise Exception(message.format(c, b))  elif b == "\\":  if c == "data":  c = "escape"  handled = True  elif c == "escape":  self.bytes += b  c = "data"  handled = True  elif b in data_characters:  if c == "data":  self.bytes += b  handled = True  if not handled:  raise Exception(message.format(c, b))  handled = False  if __name__ == "__main__":  main() test_eml_parser.py python 2.7.5  #!/usr/bin/python from eml_parser import Element, Datum import unittest class TestElement(unittest.TestCase):  def test_upper(self):  self.assertEqual('foo'.upper(), 'FOO')    def test_empty_element(self):  s = ""  e = Element.from_string(s)  self.assertEqual(e.name, "content")  self.assertEqual(len(e.children), 0)  def test_single_start_tag(self):  s = ""   with self.assertRaises(Exception):  Element.from_string(s)    def test_some_garble(self):  s = "uahslyfasdlhgfas"  with self.assertRaises(Exception):  Element.from_string(s)    def test_single_end_tag(self):  s = ""  with self.assertRaises(Exception):  Element.from_string(s)    def test_element_containing_data(self):  s = "hello world this is dog"  e = Element.from_string(s)  self.assertEqual(e.name, "content")  self.assertEqual(len(e.children), 1)  child = e.children[0]  self.assertIsInstance(child, Datum)  def test_element_containing_element(self):  s = "xyb"  e = Element.from_string(s)  self.assertEqual(e.name, "foo")  self.assertEqual(len(e.children), 3)  child1 = e.children[0]  self.assertIsInstance(child1, Datum)  child2 = e.children[1]  self.assertIsInstance(child2, Element)  self.assertEqual(len(child2.children), 1)    def test_element_followed_by_garble(self):  s = "fooasdf"  with self.assertRaises(Exception):  Element.from_string(s) if __name__ == '__main__':  unittest.main() [spiano@localhost work]$ python --version

Python 2.7.5

[spiano@localhost work]$python test_eml_parser.py ........ ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 8 tests in 0.005s OK [spiano@localhost work]$ python eml_parser.py

Edgecase Markup Language (EML) Parser Library:

This library supplies a class that can parse a file object or a string into an EML element tree.

Use:

1)
from eml_parser import Element
with open(file_path, 'r') as f:
root_element = Element.from_file_object(f)

2)
from eml_parser import Element
s = "<content>hello <bold>world</bold></content>"
root_element = Element.from_string(s)

Both class methods accept an optional Python logger object, using the keyword argument "logger".

Example:
import logging
from eml_parser import Element, create_console_logger
logger = create_console_logger(logging.INFO)
with open(file_path, 'r') as f:
root_element = Element.from_file_object(f, logger)

To display the EML element tree:
print(root_element.tree())

[start of notes]

Changes from the original text:
- I have not always preserved the format of any computer output (e.g. from running bash commands). Examples: Setting input lines in bold text, adding/removing newlines in order to make a sequence of commands easier to read, using hyphens for lists and sublists instead of indentation, breaking wide tables into consecutive sections.

[end of notes]

[start of footnotes]

[0]
e.g. an HTML page, as rendered by today's browsers.

[1]
Reality is admittedly more tangled and involves multiple interacting trees, webs, and shrubs, but a tree is probably the best format that humans can process.

[2]
This permits analysis of the tree to identify exactly which end tag is missing (if one is missing). This is not possible if a the end tag is always the same e.g. </end> or } or ) or something similar.

[3]
When using a given character set to write an encoding, you will eventually want to refer to one of the signal characters in the normal text, and this will mean that you will have to use an escape sequence. Some escape sequences include the original signal character, some do not. I have included them in my escape sequences for EML, because I judge the result to be more human-readable in its raw form.